Industrihampa som naturresurs

 i Hampans användningsområden

Visste du att det finns över 50 000 olika användningsområden för hampa? Samtliga delar av hampaplantan kan användas för att tillverka allt från papper, betong till biobränsle, samtidigt som den kan minska människans negativa påverkan på jorden och bidra till ett mer ekologiskt hållbart samhälle.

Hampa är en av jordens främsta förnyelsebara ekologiska resurser. Växten har de starkaste naturliga fibrerna i världen. Medan det tar 20 år för ett träd att mogna, så tar det endast 4 månader för en hampaplanta att bli klar för skörd, samtidigt som den genererar 4 gånger mer fiber per hektar än en genomsnittlig skog.  Pappret som tillverkas är dessutom mer hållbart och stryktåligt jämfört med traditionellt papper tillverkad från skog. Faktum är att människan har tillverkat papper från hampa i tusentals år och att det var länge en av de vanligast materialen.  Här nedan följer en rad olika användningsområden för hampa.


Kläder & textil från hampa

Hampa har använts för att tillverka textil i tusentals år. Allt från segel (canvas) som gjorde det möjligt att korsa världshaven till fallskärmar och kläder. Hampans stora fördel ligger i dess hållbarhet.

  •  Hampatextil är mer hållbart än bomull samt har antibakteriella egenskaper.
  •  Produktionen av hampatextil använder endast 1/20 av vattnet jämfört med bomullstextil.
  •  Till skillnad från bomull som tömmer jorden på näring, kan hampa odlas på samma plats i 20 år utan att jorden blir negativt påverkad.

Papper tillverkat från hampa är ett bra alternativ jämfört med papper från skog

Papper från hampa

Hampa har använts för att tillverka papper i åtminstone 2000 år och var ett av de vanligaste materialen under 1800-talet. Fördelen med hampapapper är att det är en snabb förnyelsebar resurs och en hållbar källa för pappersmassa jämfört med att producera papper från träd.

  •  Hampapapper håller i hundratals år utan att försämras.
  •  Pappret kan återvinnas fler gånger än träbaserat papper.
  •  Kräver mindre giftiga kemikalier att tillverka än papper tillverkat från trä.

Plast från hampa

Hampa är också ett livskraftigt råmaterial för plastproduktion. Bilföretaget Ford producerade en bil-prototyp tillverkat av bland annat hampa under tidigt 1940-tal. Karossen kunde absorbera slag 10x kraftigare än stål, utan att bli buckligt. Bilen var dessutom konstruerad för att drivas av hampabränsle. Dessvärre innebar hampaförbudet i USA att fortsatt produktion av bilen stoppades.

Från hampa går det att tillverka bio-disel, bio-etanol och en rad andra bränslen

Bränsle från hampa

Det går att tillverka biobränsle från hampa. Precis som med andra vegetabiliska oljor kan hampaoljan processas till biobränsle. Fördelen med hampa jämfört med många andra grödor är att den kan odlas i mindre bördiga jordar.

Hampa kan användas vid tillverkning av två typer av bränsle:

  • Hampabiodiesel – från oljan av pressade hampa frön
  • Hampaetanol/methanol – av fermenterade stammar

I takt med att människans miljöpåverkning växer sig allt starkare, krävs alternativa lösningar och hampa kan vara en tänkbar lösning. Allting som i dag tillverkas av bomull, träd och petroleum kan istället tillverkas av hampa, något som skulle kunna minska mänsklighetens miljöpåverkan och föra oss mot ett mer ekologisk hållbart samhälle.

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